A

Abdomen: section of the body between the thorax and the pelvis in which most of the digestive organs are located, belly

Adjuvant: aiding, auxiliary

Adjuvant: to appear suddenly

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: transfer of bone marrow from a donor, it is important that as much tissue data as possible matches between donor and receiver

Ambulant: surgical removal of a body limb

Anaemia: a condition where the blood contains too few red blood cells

Anaesthesia: decreased or missing pain perception

Analgesics: pain killers

Antibiotics: medication to treat a bacterial infection

Antiemetics: medication that prevents vomiting and nausea, or at least alleviates the symptoms

Antibodies: constituents of the body's own defence system. Antibodies absorb harmful substances and render them harmless.

Antiphlogistic: counteracts inflammation

Asymptomatic: without symptoms

Autologous bone marrow transplantation: retransfer of one's own bone marrow that has been extracted earlier

B

B-Symptoms: fever, night sweats and weight loss

Benign: good-natured

Biopsy: obtaining tissue with the help of an instrument (for example a scalpel) for further microscopic analysis

Blast cells: immature stage of a white blood cell

Blood smear: a protective barrier formed by the blood vessels and glia of the brain. It prevents harmful substances in the blood from entering brain tissue.

Bone marrow: produces the cellular components of blood

Bone marrow examination: removal of bone marrow through a hollow needle either from the breast bone or the pelvic bone

C

Cachexia: general malnutrition due to, for example, advanced cancer and a weight loss of more than 20 % off the normal weight

Carcinoma: growth, neoplasm; consisting of epithelial tissue

Catheter: are used for the injection, withdrawal or drainage of fluids

Central catheter: a special form of venous access. The great advantage of a central catheter is that blood samples can be taken through it

Chronic: proceeding over a long period of time, developing slowly

Colonoscopy: proceeding over a long period of time, developing slowly

Complication: medical problem that can affect the condition of a patient in a negative way

Curative: aable to cure disease

Cycle: a course that recurs in regular intervals

Cytokines: messengers with which for example the body's own defence communicates

Cytokines: the study of the morphology and function of cells

D

Diagnostics: general term for all examinations that lead to the identification of a disease

Dialysis: filtering of the blood which is done through an artificial kidney if the body's own kidneys failed

Differential blood count: distribution of white blood cells (leucocytes) in percentage, determined on the basis of a blood smear

Diffuse: not definitely limited or localised, widely distributed

Drainage tube: tube that is introduced into a wound or cavity to facilitate removal of a fluid

E

Endocrine: Substances are released into the bloodstream

Endoprosthesis: implant, artificial replacement of a body part that is placed internally.

Endoscope: flexible tube, often with a small light and a small camera to be able to examine several organs "from the inside"

Enzymes: molecules in the human body that have various functions

Erythrocytes: red blood cells. Their function is the transport of oxygen

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): the rate at which solid blood constituents separate from non-solid constituents. This is an unspecific way of measuring the degree of an inflammation.

Esophagoscopy: visualisation/endoscopy of the esophagus

F

Focal: limited to one specific area

G

GGastroscopy: examination of the abdomen or stomach

Grading: Beurteilung des Grades der Bösartigkeit von Tumoren nach verschiedenen Bewertungskriterien.

Grading system: system used to classify cancer. Cancer cells are analysed to see how much they resemble or differ from normal cells. The higher the degree of cellular differentiation, the more malignant the cancer is graded.

H

Haematology: the study of blood diseases

Haematuriathe finding of blood in the urine

Histology: the study of cells and tissue on the microscopic level. By analysing a very thin tissue section under the microscope a histologist can differentiate a benign from a malignant abnormality of the tissue

Hormones:messengers in the human body. They can travel either through the blood stream or the lymphatic system.

I

Iliac crest: upper margin of the pelvic bone.

Immunosuppressives: medication that lessens the activity of the immune system or suppresses it completely. They are especially important with transplantations.

Immune system: the body's own defence system: the body's defences implement counteractive measures after identifying pathogens or strange substances.

Indication: reason for medical action

Induction therapy: initial intensive course of chemotherapy that is designed to wipe out as many cancer cells as possible in order to achieve remission.

Infection: invasion and multiplication of pathogenic organisms, like for example viruses or bacteria in the human body

Infection defence: the body's defences against an infection through bacteria, viruses or fungi. It consists of the adaptive immune system and the innate immune system.

Infiltrate: to invade

Infusion: introduction of fluids into the body through the bloodstream

Injection: introduction of fluid into the organism through a syringe

Intramuscular: administration of medication through a syringe into the muscle

Intravenous: administration of medication through a syringe into the vein

Invasive: invading the body, infiltrating

J

K

L

LLaparotomy: general term for abdominal surgery

Laryngoscopy: visualisation of the larynx and vocal cords

Latent: silent; hidden

Leucocytes: white blood cells

Liquor: fluid surrounding the brain and the bone marrow

Local anaesthetic: the patient is injected with medication that numbs the area around the puncture. Unlike with general aesthetic, here the patient stays awake and conscious

Localisation: determination of the site or place, of a tumour for example

Lumbar puncture: puncture in the spine for the extraction of fluid in order to analyse the cells and/or for the administration of medication into the cerebrospinal fluid

Lymphoma: malignant growth that originates from cells in the lymphatic tissue

Lymph nodes: an important part of the immune defence, they also filter the lymph (tissue fluid).

M

MMacrophages: scavenger cells in tissue; they form a constituent of the immune system

Manual: by hand

Mediastinum: middle part of the thorax

Metastases: secondary tumour. Tumour cells can spread through the blood stream or the lymphatic system to other organs

Myelosuppression: damaging or reduction of bone marrow through chemotherapy, almost always reversible. The duration of the suppression depends on the type of therapy. It results in reduction in a number of blood platelets, red cells and white cells and a high infection and bleeding risk.

N

Neutropenia: shortage of neutrophil granulocytes.

O

Oedema: painless swelling without redness due to an accumulation of watery fluid in intercellular tissue spaces. Oedema can have various causes.

Oncology: the study of cancer diseases.

Ostomy: operation to create an opening from an area inside the body to the outside.

Out-patient treatment: treatment without having to stay in hospital.

P

Paediatrics: area of medicine concerned with the health of infants, children and adolescents

Palliative: affording relief, alleviating

Parenteral: not through the alimentary cana

Pathology: the branch of medicine concerned with disease, especially its structure and functional effects on the body. Also the study of causes, formation and development of diseases.

Perfusor: Infusionspumpe, durch die dem Patienten immer ganz genaue Mengen von Medikamenten und Nährstoffen zugeführt werden können.

Percutaneous: through the skin

Physical: pertaining to the body

Postoperative treatment: treatment after an operation

Prevention: preventing measure

Primary tumour: the tumour that developed first

Prognosis: a forecast as to the probable development of a disease in the future

Prophylaxis: preventing measure

Prosthesis: artificial replacement of an amputated or missing limb

Psychic: pertaining to the psyche or the mind, mental

Puncture: penetration of vessels, hollow organs or tumours with a hollow needle to extract material for analysis

Q

R

RRadical operation: operational procedure in which not only visibly diseased tissue is removed but also tissue surrounding it

Radiotherapy: treatment of a disease with radiation

Rectal application: administration of medication in the rectum in the form of suppositories

Remission: remission means the body is free of detectable cancer cells. A patient is considered to be cured after five years of remission.

Resection: removal of diseased parts of an organ through operation

Reversible: capable of being reversed or of reversing

Relapse: reappearance of a tumour during or after treatment

S

SSarcoma: tumour that originates from the connective tissue

Scalpel: surgical knife with a fixed blade

Sepsis: systemic inflammatory response syndrome with the presence of an infection (blood poisoning)

Somatic: to or characteristic of the body

Stationary / in-patient treatment: treatment that a patient receives in the hospital

Stenosis: narrowing of hollow organs or vessels

Stethoscope: through the stethoscope, the doctor can make very quiet sounds louder. People used to call it "ear trumpet". One can examine the heart and the lung with it.

Symptom: a sign of a disease

Syringe pump: infusion pump through which very precise amounts of medication and nutrition can be administered

T

Thorax: rib cage

Thrombocytes: blood plates; their function is the occlusion of vessels in the case of an injury

Thrombosis: formation of a blood clot in veins or arteries. If neglected, it can lead to life threatening complication in various organs (embolism).

TNM-Classification: staging system for tumours after their spreading

Transdermal: entering through the skin

Transfusion: intravenous transfer of blood or blood constituents into the organism

Transplantation: transfer of cells, tissue or organs to another individual or another part of the body

Tumour: growth, neoplasm; uncontrollably growing mass of cells

Tumour marker: a substance in the body that usually indicates the presence of cancer. Tumour markers are especially suitable for monitoring the disease process of common cancers

U

V

VViruses: infecting agent that cannot multiply outside the human body

W

X

Y

Z